Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Taj MahalÃ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I think a gigantic funerary mosque of white marble, built in Agra by order of the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, the Taj Mahal is the most perfect jewel of Moslem art in India and is one of the universally admired architectures of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage. Not only see the beautiful Taj Mahal from the video, I also knew the history of itself and its country. A white marble tomb sums up many of the formal themes that have played through Islamic architecture. The video did talk a lot of how much Shah Jahan himself and his father loved art and made many gorgeous artworks. Taj MahalÃ¢â¬â¢s refined style is a conspicuous contrast to the Hindu architecture of pre-Islamic India, with its thick walls, arches, and heavy supports. Even though Taj Mahal is the symbol of grief and sadness, it still has it beauty looks from marble and sand stone. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Taj Mahal stands in a formally laid-out walled garden; I think these trees and flowers made Taj Mahal even more beautiful and gave it a look of peacefulness. White marble and red sandstone are great materials to be used for symbol of eternal love. Everything seems to be in balance of itself. I think a long pool in front of Taj Mal does give many explanations or meaning of Taj Mahal. I think reflecting of Taj Mal in the long pool tells us that Shan Jahan would only love his wife, like the reflection that will only give the image of Taj Mahal, not anything else. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The lines, mostly curved, are in great harmony details. The color from both outside and inside could be changed as the light from the sun moves. The flowers and Koran written on the walls and the gate give people who visiting wondering of what is that means. As the visitors walked pass each area, I think they would imagine of what each areas mean from the story of Taj Mahal. From the video, I think some sights of Taj Mahal create sorrowing sights. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I think this architecture is beautiful artwork. I consider Taj Mahal as art because it combines many forms of art in one.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Biography of Rudyard Kipling 1865 - Kipling is born in Bombay, India. 1871 - Kipling and his younger sister Alice are separated from their parents and sent to England to be educated. 1878 - Kipling enters public school in North Devon. 1882 - Kipling ends his formal education and returns to India to become a trainee journalist. 1886 - Publication of Departmental Ditties. Kipling begins to make a name for himself as a young writer of some repute. 1887 - Soldiers Three, In Black and White, The Phantom Rickshaw, Wee Willie Winkle, The Story of the Gadsbys, and the stories later collected in The Smith Administration, The City of Dreadful Night, and Letters of Marque, were all written and published. 1889 - Kipling returns to London and embarks upon a decade of rising fame and extreme productivity. Kim, The Jungle Book, Stalky and Co., CaptainÃ¢â¬â¢s Courageous , The Seven Seas and The Days Work are all published to great success. 1891- Marries Caroline Balestrier and emigrates to the USA 1899 - Death of first born child, Josephine, in New York. 1900 - Begins sojourn in South Africa. Becomes leading proponent of the Boer War. 1908 - Greatly disillusioned by the Liberal governments policy in South Africa, Kipling returns to England. 1914 - World War one begins. Kipling believes his long-held suspicion of the Germans has been justified. He once more becomes an enthusiastic proponent of the British war effort. 1915 - KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s 18 year old son John disappears in battle. Kipling never really recovers from the loss. Kipling is diagnosed with the ailments that would later kill him. 1... ...nsued when John Kipling disappeared in action only a month after his arrival. Kipling saw the subsequent settlement at Versailles as another betrayal, mocking the sacrifices of the fallen allies. For his remaining two decades, he endured constant pain and discomfort from a series of misdiagnosed stomach ailments. In his autobiography Something of Myself (1935) , Kipling makes no mention of his years of suffering, just as he also avoids mention of the other tragedies in his life. He continued to write, and to develop his art, right up until the end of his life. He died in January 1936. Works Cited Kipling, Rudyard. Something of Myself and Other Autobiographical Writings, ed. Thomas Pinney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Sullivan, Zoreh T. Narratives of Empire : The Fictions of Rudyard Kipling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest Written by Ken Kesey, One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest was published in 1967 by Penguin Books. This story was written based on the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s experience while working in a mental institution. He held long conversations with the inmates in order to gain a better understanding of them. It was during this period that he wrote the first draft of One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest. Most of the characters in the novel are based upon actual patients he met while working at the hospital. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest is set in a mental hospital in Oregon. The novel is divided into four parts. Parts One, Two and Four are set in the hospital itself. In Part Three, the patients from the hospital go on a deep-sea fishing trip, and the setting is the boat. Except for a few outsiders, the characters are either patients or employees of the hospital. Kesey has drawn from his own experience to give the reader an insider's view of the hospital. The novel starts with the admission of Randle P. McMurphy to the Hospital. As he introduces himself to the other patients, the Ã¢â¬Å"head nurseÃ¢â¬ , Nurse Ratched immediately decided he is a troublemaker. Even though everyone else is afraid of the nurse, everyone that is except for McMurphy. He tires to make as much commotion as he can. He sings when heÃ¢â¬â¢s not supposed to, asks for things when itÃ¢â¬â¢s not time to, and appears half-naked, which really flusters the nurse. When a staff meeting comes up, the do... One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest Essay -- Essays Papers One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest Written by Ken Kesey, One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest was published in 1967 by Penguin Books. This story was written based on the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s experience while working in a mental institution. He held long conversations with the inmates in order to gain a better understanding of them. It was during this period that he wrote the first draft of One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest. Most of the characters in the novel are based upon actual patients he met while working at the hospital. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest is set in a mental hospital in Oregon. The novel is divided into four parts. Parts One, Two and Four are set in the hospital itself. In Part Three, the patients from the hospital go on a deep-sea fishing trip, and the setting is the boat. Except for a few outsiders, the characters are either patients or employees of the hospital. Kesey has drawn from his own experience to give the reader an insider's view of the hospital. The novel starts with the admission of Randle P. McMurphy to the Hospital. As he introduces himself to the other patients, the Ã¢â¬Å"head nurseÃ¢â¬ , Nurse Ratched immediately decided he is a troublemaker. Even though everyone else is afraid of the nurse, everyone that is except for McMurphy. He tires to make as much commotion as he can. He sings when heÃ¢â¬â¢s not supposed to, asks for things when itÃ¢â¬â¢s not time to, and appears half-naked, which really flusters the nurse. When a staff meeting comes up, the do...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Samsung is low cost and differentiated. According to exhibit 7a-7i, it can be seen that Samsung has a lower operating cost of $8. 50 as compared to industry average of $11. 03 as well as higher profit margin 6. 6 times that of its competitors. This reflects Samsung ability to deliver desired value to customers using lean and effective design and production. Samsung is able to maintain the low cost largely because of lower labor, R&D and raw material cost. Samsung has a relatively lower labor cost for each production unit because its meritocratic hiring and evaluation system, reward policies, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ welfare and benefits to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ family allow employees to focus on innovation and productivity. Hardworking employees are always ready to work overtime, thereby eliminating wastage of resources needed to source for additional help or last minute hire. Also, its strategic location in Korea translates into some savings in labor cost compared to companies that operate in Japan and US. SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s collocation of its main R&D facility and fab lines is estimated to have saved an average of 12% on fab construction costs. Living together at the SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s primary campus, R&D and production engineers solve design and production engineering problems together and, indirectly encouraged good rapport. This may explain the lower R&D cost that Samsung incurs. SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative technology contributed to lower raw material costs and higher yield rate. Samsung currently uses the smallest process technology of 0. 11Ã µm which enables them to have a higher net dice per wafer compared to their peers who uses 0. 13Ã µm. Samsung needs less materials than others to produce the same product, reducing overall production cost. Its innovation not only reduced cost, but also formed its differentiated core competency. Noticeably, its innovation has reduced defects in its product also help to lower wastage and hence lower cost of production. Samsung is also innovative in customizing to their customers needs by designing different offer for each segment. The strategic fit of the different activities formed SamsungÃ¢â¬â¢s differentiated core competency that is definitely valuable, rare, costly to imitate and nonsubstitutable. The activities include the presence of a productive and innovative human resource, strategic location, social complexity, good leadership and trusted band name. With these synergistic factors, Samsung is both low cost and differentiated.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Give a detailed account of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ systematic doubt or methodical doubt in Meditation 1, making it certain that you distinguish between real doubts and so called hypothetical/metaphysical doubts. Then, explain in detail, exactly how Descartes dispels each and every one of these doubts during the course of the subsequent Meditations beginning with the cogito. Do you think that Descartes has been completely successful? Explain.Ã¢â¬ The main goal of Descartes in Meditations on First Philosophy was to find truth behind all of his beliefs in order to build a solid foundation of certainty, and to focus his beliefs strictly on his idea of certainty; essentially to question knowledge. Descartes beliefs are mainly based on the theory that, if someone thinks that they really know something, they must be correct. Descartes meditations bring about 3 key issues that are discussed throughout the entire book; the existence of him being a thinking thing, God as a supreme being and being deceived by the Evil Genius, as well as the idea that the body is an extension of the mind. Descartes provides a solid argument throughout the entire book, calling into question every aspect of what I is, and the world around him. Descartes is trying to decipher whether or not he, anybody or anything in fact is real and he also goes on to argue that our knowledge is gained via our everyday experiences. Through examining each meditation, discussing the cogito, as well as what he discusses in terms of his senses and the external world, the dream hypothesis and his evil genius theory; I will conclude that in fact he does exist, knowledge exists, and God exists. There are two real doubts in which Descartes talks about throughout the meditations. The first being the senses and external world in which he believes causes one to doubt. He claims that in order for him to believe that of his senses he must acquire complete certainty, and he says that we should ask ourselves whether perception is really a legitimate means for attaining knowledge, can we trust our senses? If not, what grounds do we have to deny? Descartes claims that at times the senses can become deceiving under certain circumstances. He says that certain lighting, distance and even depth perception can cause one to conclude incorrectly with regards to their senses. With this in mind, he introduces the lunatic hypothesis. He believes that he can doubt his senses even if the external conditions areÃ perfect as long as the internal conditions are not. The idea of common sense realism is also established which is the idea that truth come from the senses and the way that they appear. Common sense says that the only way to know the body is through the mind because it is visible and touchable. Descartes then dismisses the idea because he says he would not be able to perceive with his meditations if he were to deem this belief as being true. The second real doubt that Descartes brings to our attention is the dream hypothesis. This is the idea that sleeping and reality cause one to doubt. Descartes says that everyone is prone to dream and that if he is dreaming, everything he thinks he is experiencing is in fact false. This doubt then goes from a real doubt to a metaphysical doubt. He asks, if I am dreaming, is there anything that is true, reliable and certain? If not, then everything must be an illusion. He says that we sense while we are sleeping therefore when we are awake, or what we believe to be awake, how do we know that we are not actually asleep? He says Ã¢â¬ ¦let us assume that we are sleeping and these particulars are not true; that were opening our eyes; moving our head, and extending our hands (pg 60). He claims that if in fact we were dreaming these issues they must be true because in order to dream something, one must have had to experience it at some point. Therefore we must acknowledge that things seen in our dreams are painted images which must be true and exist. The idea of the Evil Genius is a metaphysical doubt, logically speaking. In this sense, God is perfect, and would never allow deception and error to take place because they are imperfect and God consists only of perfect qualities. God would not allow one to be deceived because he is supremely good, therefore deception and error must be a result of another source. He says that if his origin is from something other than God, he could have easily created him so that he makes mistakes and until he finds his origin doubt is going to occue. Descartes supposes that God is just a tale so he says let us just fraction him out of the equation entirely. Descartes decides that he is just going to doubt everything based on two principles. The first being that everything should be doubted at some point by those who seek the truth and the second being that things that are considered doubtfulÃ should be treated as if they are false. With that in mind he concludes that he does exist even against all doubts because the Evil Genius can never say that Descartes is non-existent because he thinks he is something therefore he must be. I think, therefore I am. In meditation one Descartes starts off talking about the foundations of his beliefs in order to gain better knowledge on the grounds of certainty. He says that any sort of knowledge he has previously to the meditations he received through his senses and that they can at times be deceptive. What grounds do we have to deny the idea that knowledge comes from the senses. Descartes claims that because we sense while we are dreaming, there is really no way of determining whether or not we are awake or asleep. What we perceive through the senses could have be obtained during slumber and we would be none the wiser. He says that I extend this hand consciously and deliberately, and I feel it (pg 60). He argues that if he were in fact sleeping while doing so, it would not have been so clear and distinct. He uses the example that what we dream of are like painted images. For instance, he uses the example of an artist creating a siren or a hippogriff, they combine parts of other animals or something that we have never seen before to make it even though it is false. However Descartes goes on to argue that what her perceives through the sense could in fact be false, but since other things that are simple and universal are true, what is to say that we cannot trust our senses. He states..it is not improper to conclude from this that physics, astronomy, medicine, and all other disciplines that are dependent upon the consideration of composite things are doubtful and that on the other hand, arithmetic and geometry, which are simple and general and indifferent as to whether these things do or do not exists, contain certaintyÃ¢â¬ ¦ (pg 61). Descartes believes that it is completely impossible that these obvious truths are all under suspicion for being false. Going back to the argument regarding whether or not God exists he claims that the idea of God has been inside him forever and it must have been put in him by his creator. He begins to question if he is a deceiver or not, God is said to be supremely good so it must be something else, something foreign that allows him to beÃ deceived since deception is an imperfection and God does not contain any imperfections. Thus the idea of the evil genius is born, the idea that this clever and deceitful being is dedicating every bit of energy into deceiving and misleading him. By creating this theory, Descartes now believes that all of his former opinions and views are false and he continues on with his meditations. In the second meditation, Descartes is trying to determine what truth is, and what is not. He claims that he feels as though he is lost at in a sea of knowledge and he cannot keep his head afloat. His main goal throughout this meditation is to find something that is certain and absolutely unshakable. He believes that if nothing in his mind exists and it is only deceitful, what is true, maybe nothing is. Descartes says is there not some God who puts theses thoughts in my head? I could be the creator. Am I not something? Am I so tied to a body and senses that I cannot exist without them? (pg 63) He believes that the deceiver can never bring about that he does not exist because as long as he thinks that he is in existence, then he must be. This is where the Cogito comes into play, the idea that whatever thinks, I think therefore I am. With that in mind, Descartes spends the next little bit trying to find what I is. He says that he has a face, hands and arms in which he refers to as his body and that surely sensing does not take place without the body to feel, touch, smell, taste etc. Descartes also argues that thought does exist and it cannot be separated from him, he believes I am, therefore I exist, and as long as I continue to think I will continue to exist. If he ceases to think, he then ceases to exist. He says that he is Ã¢â¬ ¦nothing but a thinking thing; a mind, or intellect, or understanding, or reasonÃ¢â¬ ¦ and that Ã¢â¬ ¦knowledge or I does not depend on things of whose existence we have zero knowledge (pg 65). In other words, he means that knowledge, or I does not depend on things of which we have no knowledge of. He even says that corpeal things [images formed by thought and which the senses themselves examine]; are more clearly and distinctively known to the I. He believes the mind is prone to error and that one must try to differentiate between perceiving through the mind as opposed through vision. Descartes then introduces us to the example of wax. He says thatÃ although it has melted, and that the shape, smell, taste and everything else that he once witnessed no longer exist, the wax is still the same wax and it is the essence that has not changed. He claims that he knows wax not through what he saw but through the inspection of the mind alone. He states that what he thought he saw in terms of the wax was really only a result of his judgement, which is a part of his mind. He claims what when he first saw it, it was perceived through an external sense or common sense and that it cannot be perceived without human mind. If I judge that the wax exists from the fact that I see it, certainly from this same face that I see the wax, is more evidence that I must exist (pg 69). He believes that since he knows our bodies are not professed through senses or imaginations but rather from the mind and intellect; he now knows that nothing can be perceived more easily and readily then his mind. He is basically saying that the senses provide us with observable traits about a subject whereas the mind and intellect give us understanding; his main point is that our perception is nothing but judgement. The third meditation brings up the idea of the Cogito again. He cannot be doubted when he says, I think therefore I am, and that the ideas in which he has are real. Descartes says that Ã¢â¬ ¦there can never be more objective reality produced then formal reality because it is impossible to create something out of nothing (pg 70). He says that he has an idea of what a perfect or infinite substance is and that is God, and since everything he perceives clearly and distinctively is true, then God must be perfect and infinite. Because I have no reason for thinking that there is a God who is a deceiver, the basis for doubting, depending as it does merely on the above hypotheses [whether God exists or not], is tenuous or metaphysical (pg 71). He says that the certainty of the belief of the cogito lies in his clear and distinct perception; saying, thinking, and believing it make it true. Then he asks, what if something clear and distinct turned out to be false, but he quickly answers by claiming that he would not have known because he has already accepted it as being true. Descartes then begins to talk about his thoughts and puts them into three classifications: ideas (images of objects), volitions or emotions (addingÃ something to ideas), and judgements (either affirm or deny). He claims that there are three different kinds of ideas out there; innate ideas which are ideas that are born into a person and exist as long as the mind exists in which every mature rational being would have these. The next would be adventitious ideas which are acquired through sensations, he says these are ideas that are gained again his will for example hearing a noise or feeling heat. The final type of idea Descartes believes exists is fictitious or fabricated ideas which are ideas that are invented by the imagination. These ideas cannot be trusted and it is in this sense that one must learn to separate mind from imagination. The mind perceives through the senses; and sense perception does not occur without the body, therefore the body must exist. Descartes uses an example of the sun, which he says arises from two different ideas, one which comes from the senses [derived from outside of him] and one which arises from astronomy or innate ideas. Through that notion the sun is known to be a large ball of fire, but through the senses the sun is perceived as being rather small and bright. He says that Ã¢â¬ ¦if we assume that something is found in the idea that was not in its cause, then it results from nothing (pg 75). For example he uses the idea of hot and cold. He says that cold could be a privation of heat and vice versa but since ideas can only be of real things, the idea that cold is determined as a result of the absence of warmth, the idea of cold as something real is not true. In sum, the perception of what is infinite was placed in my mind previous to the idea of finite substance, that is that what he believes God to be came before his idea of himself because God is infinite and you cannot add to perfection. Descartes said that he now knows that he depends on another being for existence and that he gained his idea of God not from his senses or unexpectedly but from his innate or natural ideas. He concludes that it would be impossible to exist unless God did exists because: Ã¢â¬ ¦it is manifest by the light of nature that all fraud and deception depend on some defect (pg 80). In meditation Four Descartes is trying to clarify why God is no deceiver. The main question that needs explanation is if God is no deceiver then why andÃ how do we make mistakes? He believes that all men are prone to make mistakes because like God, our wills are never-ending but our intellect and understanding unfortunately is not. Our mind only allows us to observe things clearly and distinctly which is how we know that they are true. He says when I take note of the fact that I doubt or that I am a thing that is incomplete and dependent there comes to mind a clear and distinct idea of a being that is independent and complete, that is the idea of God (pg 81). Descartes believes that it is possible; if we use our ability properly we will not agree with false judgments. He says I note that these errors depend on the simultaneous concurrence of two causes: the faculty of knowing that is in me and the faculty of choosing, that is the free choice of will, in other words, simultaneously on the intellect and will. Through the intellect alone, I merely perceive ideas about which I can render a judgement (pg 83). God has created us in a way that if we perceive things in a clear and distinct our, way of thinking will not be incorrect. In the fifth meditation, Descartes is basically trying to examine the essence of tangible things. Since Descartes proved that we gain our beliefs and understanding through ideas, he is able to prove that God exists. He then uses the example of a triangle by saying that if God does not exist then a triangle does not have three sides. Since God is believed to be a supremely perfect being, there is no way that he would deceive because then that would conclude that he lacks some perfection. Descartes then attempts to explain the separation between mind and imagination. At this point doubt again gets the best of him and he must try to look beyond the unreliability of the senses. Descartes goes on to say that what I believe must be considered above all here is the fact that I find within me countless ideas of certain things, that, even if perhaps they do not exist anywhere outside me, still cannot be said to be nothing (pg 88). He believes that our knowledge of material things is based on our belief that God exists. I cannot think of God as not existing no more than I can think of a mountain without a valley, nevertheless it surely does not follow from the fact that I think of a mountain without a valley that a mountain exists in the world (pg 89). Material things must be real because God does not deceive. In meditation six Descartes is trying to prove once and for all if material things exist. Descartes then reflects all of the previous meditations to figure it out. He believes that material things can and do exist and that it is through our understanding that this is proven. He says that his senses perceive his body, therefore he must have one. assumes to have a body based on what his senses perceive. He begins to explore this notion that he had previously dismissed to doubt. He inquires whether his senses give him reason for bodies to exist. He says that God has given us a great inclination to believe that these ideas proceeded from corporeal thingsÃ¢â¬ (pg 94). Descartes thinks that it is from life that we differentiate other bodies and their explanation. He believes entirely that the mind is a thinking, un-extended thing, but the body is a physical and extended thing because the body can be separated. Descartes then dismisses the dream hypothesis because he realizes that being awake is a part of both the mind and body. He proves that our essence is of the mind and is a lot more known to us than the body. Throughout all the meditations Descartes constantly re-examines each belief and attempts to find the grounds of absolute certainty. It is through the dream hypothesis, the idea of the Evil Genius and his ideas about the senses that he concludes in fact that he is an existing thing, God does exist and so does knowledge. His arguments, although confusing at times were pretty accurate in deciphering between what is false and what is reality. By the end of the meditation it seems as though he is right back where he began and that in fact he did not get anywhere. He was better off to just believe what he originally believed then to question it and put him through such torture. In essence it was almost as though the only thing that he proved was that his senses were intended to help him figure out the world and everything about it not lead him to discovering the truths of the universe. Ã¢â¬Æ'Bibliography Descartes, Rene. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy. 4th ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Company, 1998.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Elizabeth NolanNovember 24, 2012 English essay Favorite Play Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ , a play by Susan Gaspell, is a story of women banding together to protect one another in a male dominated society. The play is titled Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ because womenÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns were often considered mere trifles, and not worth the thought and time of men. The use of theme, symbolism, and irony are the reasons why this play is so appealing, especially to women. Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ contains themes of female identity, revenge, and protection.The protagonists of the play are women, but they are not known by their first names. They are only called by their husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ name. It is only when they speak of Mrs. Wright before her marriage that she is called Minnie. The men believe that the women are small-minded and assume the identities of their husbands. Minnie Wright was a vibrant, outgoing young lady. After her marriage to John Wright, the light in her dimmed until she was nothing but a sh ell of her former self.He took away her self worth, making her life with him unbearable. This is the reason she snapped and murdered her husband. Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters discover evidence that the men could not. They approached the house as a home instead of a crime scene. The women identified with Mrs. Wright after piecing the story together and decided to keep the evidence that would convict her to themselves. By protecting her, they are standing up for women everywhere. Mrs.Wrights pet canary is a symbol of herself. She had once been a beautiful girl with a nice singing voice, but her marriage to John Wright was like a cage. She was secluded from others and treated poorly by him. The bird was her only source of happiness in her cold, lonely life. When john strangled the bird, he killed the last part of Mrs. Wright that was Minnie Foster. He had taken away her only comfort in life, and this is why she decided to strangle him with the rope.
Moral development theories are also known as age theories or stage theories. They are also called eclectic theories to imply that Ã¢â¬ËeverythingÃ¢â¬â¢ is capable of causing delinquency and therefore tightly linked to Ã¢â¬Ëevil causes evil fallacyÃ¢â¬â¢. According to Siegel (2004), theories of moral development may be divided into; latent trait theories and life course theories. According to the latent trait theory, delinquent behaviors are preset by a master trait present in an individual at birth. Such a behavior is expected to remain unchanged in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life time. According to the life course theory, deviance is a process that is dynamic and shaped by personal characteristics and his/her experiences within the society. Since human beings are social in nature, their behaviors influence the lies of one another, either positively or negatively. Moral development theories mainly emphasize on ethics (http://www. apsu. edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory06. htm; Hawkins J. D, 1996, pp. 150-245) According to neo-cognitive theory, the adolescence alienation process that is seen to be mysterious is to blame for delinquency. Though adolescence is a development stage, this theory is associated with pubertal biological developments in human beings making it more complex. Stanley hall developed six adolescence themes which a normal human being must possess. These include self definition, omni potentiality and estrangement within the society, socialization refusal, youth cultural celebration through rebellious solidarity, determination to change geographically and consciously and obsession in physique. The theory is also associated with three main path ways that indicate delinquency; authority conflict, overt and covert (http://www. apsu. edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory06. htm ; Hawkins J. D, 1996, pp. 150-245) According to PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on moral development, human beings go through four main stages in their lives. These are sensor motor, preoperational, concrete and formal. Once people are between 7 and 14 years, some find it hard to proceed to the next stage, formal stage, and as a result they become delinquents with dualistic morality. Such people only classify things right/wrong without further reasoning. Erickson gives a similar theory but different in that it comprises if eight stages where delinquents are said to be stuck in stage five (identity/identity-diffusion stage at the age between 12 and 18 years). At this stage, male delinquents are said to not to experience intimacy but identity while females experience the opposite. Delinquents according to this theory are yet to develop virtues of fidelity and those of self-worth. Kohlberg developed a similar theory but this theory was based on six stages of human development. According to Kohlberg, this theory is independent of age and the stages are as follows; punishment concern stage where individuals obey societal norms and avoid sanctions, individualistic stage where personal matters come first, interpersonal stage where the individual extends his/her concern to others, conscience concern stage where group concerns are valued, social contract concern stage where the individual is guided by the societal rights he/she is entitled to enjoy and finally the universal ethics concern where human kind justice principles become the guiding principle. Delinquents are usually said to be stuck in the first three stages with the most notorious at the first stage (http://www. apsu. edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory06. htm ; Hawkins J. D, 1996, pp. 150-245). According to these theories, the major causes of delinquency behaviors are ineffective parenting and poor socialization processes. If parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide a good parenting practice that is able to ensure the children grow up in a good environment free from negative influence, the child will eventually engage in criminal acts. The other socialization agents especially the family and learning institutions should also be at the fore front to monitor, counsel and advice children on matters that may lead to delinquency if not properly dealt with. It is important to realize that behaviors that are conduct disordered leads to failure and rejection by peer mates. An individual becomes depressed and as a result may likely engage in delinquent and antisocial behavior (http://www. apsu. edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory06. htm ; Hawkins J. D, 1996, pp. 50-245) References Hawkins J. D, (1996), DELINQUENCY AND CRIME: CURRENT THEORIES, Cambridge University Press, 150-245 MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES OF CRIME, Retrieved from http://www. apsu. edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory06. htm on 6th June, 2009